At the December solstice, Earth is positioned so the sun stays below the North Pole's horizon. As seen from the latitude 23 1/2 degrees south of the equator, at the imaginary line encircling the globe known as the Tropic of Capricorn, the sun shines directly overhead at noon.
On 22nd December, the Tropic of Capricorn receives direct rays of the sun as the South Pole tilts towards it. As the sun's rays fall vertically at the Tropic of Capricorn (23 ° S), a larger portion of the Southern Hemisphere gets light.
The sun's rays are directly overhead along the Tropic of Capricorn (the latitude line at 23.5° south, passing through Brazil, South Africa, and Australia) on December 21. Without the tilt of the earth's axis, we would have no seasons. The sun's rays would be directly overhead of the equator all year long.
In the Southern Hemisphere, conversely, today is Summer Solstice — in places like Australia, New Zealand, or South Africa, therefore, December 22 is the year's longest day. So, in Melbourne, the Sun rose at 5.54 am on Sunday, and will set at 8.42 pm, marking a day that is 14:47:23 long.
Since it is tilted away from the sun, it receives less sunlight, making the day shorter and the night longer. The winter solstice on December 21 marks the shortest day of the year north of the equator and the effect will be seen in places that are farthest from the line diving the planet into two halves.
In the southern hemisphere, 22nd December has the longest day and the shortest night. The earth is tilted on its axis by 66.5 degrees. This way, on two specific days of the year one pole of the earth is tilted away the most from the sun. The pole near to the sun, therefore, has the longest day and the shortest night.
At 6:12 a.m. EST on Friday (Dec. 21), the sun will reach a point where it will appear to shine farthest to the south of the equator, over the Tropic of Capricorn, thus marking the moment of the winter solstice — the beginning of winter.
This is because the earth is tilted at a 23.5 degree angle, and during the winter solstice, the southern hemisphere is tilted away from the Sun, meaning that the antarctic circle is completely tilted away from the Sun, hence it experiences 24 hour nighttime, and vice versa.
For the northern half of Earth (the Northern Hemisphere), the winter solstice occurs annually on December 21 or 22. (For the Southern Hemisphere, the winter solstice occurs on June 20 or 21.) The winter solstice is the day with the fewest hours of sunlight in the whole year, making it the “shortest day” of the year.
Vernal equinox(about March 21): day and night of equal length, marking the start of spring. Summer solstice (June 20 or 21): longest day of the year, marking the start of summer.
So, at the end of the day, while solstices and equinoxes are related, they happen at different times of the year. Just remember that solstices are the longest and shortest days of the year, while equinoxes occur when the day and night are equally as long.
In the Northern Hemisphere, the winter sun (November, December, January) rises in the southeast, transits the celestial meridian at a low angle in the south (more than 43° above the southern horizon in the tropics), and then sets in the southwest. It is on the south (equator) side of the house all day long.
The anniversary of the first pilgrims landing on the shores of North America is observed.
It always takes place around this time of year, sometimes occurring on June 20 and sometimes on June 21. In 2023, the Summer Solstice will also be on June 21, while it'll be on June 20 in each of 2024 and 2025.
Winter solstice, or the shortest day on the Earth is observed every year on December 21 or 22 22 mostly in countries, like the UK, US, India, Russia, China, and Canada, where the winter season is prominently visible with heavy snowfall.
Altitude = 90° - Latitude +/- Declination.
During summer, Antarctica is on the side of Earth tilted toward the sun and is in constant sunlight. In the winter, Antarctica is on the side of Earth tilted away from the sun, causing the continent to be dark.
December 21st was the Winter Solstice in the northern hemisphere. That's the day when Earth's north pole was pointed completely away from the Sun. If you lived north of the Arctic Circle, like Santa Claus, you would have experienced 24 hours of darkness. It was the day Sun never rose.
In 2022 the winter solstice will occur on Wednesday 21 December. The winter solstice occurs in December, and in the northern hemisphere the date marks the 24-hour period with the fewest daylight hours of the year. That is why it is known as the shortest day of the year, or the longest night of the year.
The Summer Solstice (on June 21), is the day when the noon sun is highest in the sky and the duration of daylight is the greatest.
It's Australia as the December solstice is on either December 20, 21, 22 or 23. The North Pole is tilted furthest from the Sun. It is the winter solstice in the Northern Hemisphere, where it is the darkest day of the year.
And, December 21 turned out to be the shortest day of the year for Indians. There's no deep celestial mystery behind this, as this annual event unfolds every year during the winter solstice. The winter solstice marks the onset of winter, at the time of the shortest day, in the northern hemisphere.
The center of the sun is the hottest part (at around 15 million Kelvins, or 27 million degrees Fahrenheit).